Anatomy of the extrinsic gut musculature of Gammarus minus (Crustacea: Amphipoda)

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Inserting on the buccal and esophageal foregut of Gammarus minus are numerous pairs of serially arranged dorsal dilator muscles, a single pair of lateral muscles, and two pairs of posterior muscles. Muscles of the cardiac stomach include three dorsal sets, a single pair associated with the pterocardiac ossicles, and two pairs inserting on the ventral aspect. A single pair of muscles inserts on the lateral aspect of the pyloric stomach. The extrinsic muscles of the foregut originate from exoskeletal apodemes of the cephalothoracic cuticle, sockets of the mandible, and a maxillary bridge that lies just ventral to the cardiac stomach. The extrinsic musculature of the hindgut is restricted to the rectal region and consists of paired dorsal and ventral series in an X‐configuration. A single unpaired muscle inserts on the ventral midline. Extrinsic muscles of the hindgut originate from the integument of the last pleonic segment. The general arrangement of extrinsic gut muscles in G. minus is similar but not identical to that of other amphipods studied. However, the pattern is quite different from that of other malacostracans. Copyright © 1989 Wiley‐Liss, Inc.

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Journal of Morphology

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