GPU road network graph contraction and SSSP query

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Conference Proceeding

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PHAST is to date one of the fastest algorithms for performing single source shortest path (SSSP) queries on road-network graphs. PHAST operates on graphs produced in part using Geisberger's contraction hierarchy (CH) algorithm. Producing these graphs is time consuming, limiting PHAST's usefulness when graphs are not available in advance. CH iteratively assigns scores to nodes, contracts (removes) the highest-scoring node, and adds shortcut edges to preserve distances. Iteration stops when only one node remains. Scoring and contraction rely on a witness path search (WPS) of nearby nodes. Little work has been reported on parallel and especially GPU CH algorithms. This is perhaps due to issues such as the validity of simultaneous potentially overlapping searches, score staleness, and parallel graph updates. A GPU contraction algorithm, CU-CH, is presented which overcomes these difficulties by partitioning the graph into levels composed of independent sets of nodes (non-adjacent nodes) with similar scores. This allows contracting multiple nodes simultaneously with little coordination between threads. A GPU-efficient WPS is presented in which a small neighborhood is kept in shared memory and a hash table is used to detect path overlap. Low-parallelism regions of contraction and query are avoided by halting contraction early and computing APSP on the remaining graph. A PHAST-like query computes SSSP using this contracted graph. Contraction of some DIMACS road network graphs on an Nvidia P100 GPU achieves a speedup of 20 to 37 over Geisberger's serial code on a Xeon E5-2640 v4. Query times on CU-CH- and CH-contracted graphs were comparable.

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Proceedings of the International Conference on Supercomputing

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