High-percentage replacement of cement with fly ash for reinforced concrete pipe

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Fly ash is commonly used as a substitute for cement within concrete in various applications. Manufacturers of reinforced concrete products commonly limit the quantity of fly ash used to 25% or less by weight. Test cylinders with varying percentages of Class C (25-65%) and Class F (25-75%) fly ash and a water-reducing admixture (WRA) were created under field manufacturing conditions and tested for 7-day compressive strength. Seven-day compressive strength for the concrete/fly ash/WRA was found to be highest when the concrete mix included approximately 35% Class C or 25% Class F fly ash. However, substitution ratios of up to 65% Class C or 40% Class F fly ash for cement met or exceeded American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) strength requirements for manufacture of Class I, II and III reinforced concrete pipe (RCP). © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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Cement and Concrete Research

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