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A new species of Roeboides is described from the Pacific slope of Costa Rica and Panama. Roeboides bussingi differs from all other Central American Roeboides and all members of the R. guatemalensis species group by the following combination of characters: presence of 18-22 scales above the lateral line (vs. 12-16 in R. dientito); 15-22 scales below the lateral line (vs. 10-14 in R. dientito, and 20-24 in R. loftini); an inconspicuous, sometimes absent, crescent-shaped humeral spot (vs. a large round, conspicuous humeral spot in R. carti, R. dayi, R. dientonito, R. ilseae, R. loftini, and R. occidentalis); a small wedge-shaped spot that does not reach the lateral line (vs. a large spot crossing the lateral line in R. guatemalensis); a teardrop shaped caudal spot (vs. caudal spot triangle shaped in R. bouchellei); and a dark band at the distal tip of the anal fin (vs. dark band absent in R. bouchellei). A key to all Middle American species of Roeboides is also presented. © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia.

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Neotropical Ichthyology

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