Mutations at five loci named PEANUT1-5 (PNT) were identified in a genetic screen for radially swollen embryo mutants, pnt1 cell walls showed decreased crystalline cellulose, increased pectins, and irregular and ectopic deposition of pectins, xyloglucans, and callose. Furthermore, pnt1 pollen is less viable than the wild type, and pnt1 embryos were delayed in morphogenesis and showed defects in shoot and root meristems. The PNT1 gene encodes the Arabidopsis thaliana homolog of mammalian PIG-M, an endoplasmic reticulum-localized mannosyltransferase that is required for synthesis of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor. All five pnt mutants showed strongly reduced accumulation of GPI-anchored proteins, suggesting that they all have defects in GPI anchor synthesis. Although the mutants are seedling lethal, pnt1 cells are able to proliferate for a limited time as undifferentiated callus and do not show the massive deposition of ectopic cell wall material seen in pnt1 embryos. The different phenotype of pnt1 cells in embryos and callus suggest a differential requirement for GPI-anchored proteins in cell wall synthesis in these two tissues and points to the importance of GPI anchoring in coordinated multicellular growth. © 2005 American Society of Plant Biologists.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Stewart Gillmor, C., Lukowitz, W., Brininstool, G., Sedbrook, J., Hamann, T., Poindexter, P., & Somerville, C. (2005). Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins are required for cell wall synthesis and morphogenesis in arabidopsis. Plant Cell, 17 (4), 1128-1140. https://doi.org/10.1105/tpc.105.031815