Plant Growth and Agrobacterium-mediated Floral-dip Transformation of the Extremophyte Schrenkiella parvula.

Document Type


Publication Date



Schrenkiella parvula is an extremophyte adapted to various abiotic stresses, including multiple ion toxicity stresses. Despite high-quality genomic resources available to study how plants adapt to environmental stresses, its value as a functional genomics model and tool has been limited by the lack of a feasible transformation system. In this protocol, we report how to generate stable transgenic S. parvula lines using an Agrobacterium-mediated floral-dip method. We modified the transformation protocol used for A. thaliana to account for unique traits of S. parvula, such as an indeterminate flowering habit and a high epicuticular wax content on leaves. Briefly, S. parvula seeds were stratified at 4 °C for five days before planting. Plants were grown at a photoperiod of a 14 h light and 10 h dark and a 130 µmol m-2s-1 light intensity, at 22 °C to 24 °C. Eight to nine week-old plants with multiple inflorescences were selected for transformation. These inflorescences were dipped in an infiltration solution of Agrobacterium tumefaciens GV3101 carrying the pMP90RK plasmid. We performed two rounds of flower dipping with an interval of three to four weeks to increase the transformation efficiency. The T1 seeds were collected and dried for four weeks in a container with desiccants before germination to screen for candidate transformed lines. Resistance to BASTA was used to screen T1 plants. We sprayed the BASTA solution three times with an interval of three days starting at two week-old plants to reduce false positives. A BASTA drop test was performed on surviving individual plants to identify true positive transformants. The transformation efficiency was 0.033%, yielding 3-4 transgenic plants per 10,000 T1 seeds propagated.

Publication Source (Journal or Book title)

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE

This document is currently not available here.