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Vitronectin and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) are important physiological binding partners that work in concert to regulate cellular adhesion, migration, and fibrinolysis. The high affinity binding site for PAI-1 is located within the N-terminal somatomedin B domain of vitronectin; however, several studies have suggested a second PAI-1-binding site within vitronectin. To investigate this secondary site, a vitronectin mutant lacking the somatomedin B domain (rΔsBVN) was engineered. The short deletion had no effect on heparin-binding, integrin-binding, or cellular adhesion. Binding to the urokinase receptor was completely abolished while PAI-1 binding was still observed, albeit with a lower affinity. Analytical ultra-centrifugation on the PAI-1-vitronectin complex demonstrated that increasing NaCl concentration favors 1:1 versus 2:1 PAI-1-vitronectin complexes and hampers formation of higher order complexes, pointing to the contribution of charge-charge interactions for PAI-1 binding to the second site. Furthermore, fluorescence resonance energy transfer between differentially labeled PAI-1 molecules confirmed that two independent molecules of PAI-1 are capable of binding to vitronectin. These results support a model for the assembly of higher order PAI-1-vitronectin complexes via two distinct binding sites in both proteins. © 2008 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

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Journal of Biological Chemistry

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