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© 2018 Elsevier Inc. Mammalian imprinted domains are regulated through small genomic regions termed Imprinting Control Regions (ICRs). In the current study, the evolution patterns of the ICRs of Peg3 and H19-imprinted domains were analyzed using the genomic sequences derived from a large number of mammals. The results indicated that multiple YY1 and CTCF binding sites are localized within the Peg3 and H19-ICR in all the mammals tested. The numbers of YY1 and CTCF binding sites are variable among individual species, yet positively correlate with the presence of tandem repeats within the Peg3 and H19-ICRs. Thus, multiple YY1 and CTCF binding sites within the respective ICRs may have been maintained through tandem repeats/duplications. The unit lengths of tandem repeats are also non-random and locus-specific, 140 and 400 bp for the Peg3 and H19-ICRs. Overall, both Peg3 and H19-ICRs may have co-evolved with two unique features, multiple transcription factor binding sites and tandem repeats.

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