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Links between both temperament and parenting, and children's sociable and aggressive behaviour with peers (physical and relational), were examined. The research was undertaken in two Western cultures (the United States and Australia) assumed to be similar in socialisation practices and emphases. The moderating effects of parent sex and child sex were also examined. Parents completed questionnaires on parenting styles and child temperament. Preschool teachers rated children's aggressive and sociable behaviour. US children were rated higher on both types of aggression by teachers and on sociability, activity, and emotionality by parents. Girls were rated as more relationally aggressive and more prosocial than boys, with boys higher on physical aggression. Mothers were more authoritative, with fathers more authoritarian, although the latter was mainly a result obtained from US parents. In both the United States and Australia, temperament consistently predicted child sociable and aggressive behaviours, with some evidence of fathers' authoritarian parenting also contributing. The results show the relevance for parenting and child development of gender, and the importance of culture differences even between two Western and individualist countries.

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International Journal of Behavioral Development

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