The effect of nanoparticle properties, detection method, delivery route and animal model on poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles biodistribution in mice and rats

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A review of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid (PLGA) nanoparticle (NP) biodistribution was conducted with the intent of identifying particle behavior for drug delivery applications. Databases such as Science Direct and Web of Science were used to locate papers on biodistribution of intravenous (i.v.) and orally delivered PLGA NPs in mice and rats. The papers included in the review were limited to those that report biodistribution data in terms of % dose particles/g tissue in the liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart and brain. Noted trends involved particle behavior based on individual organ, particle size, animal model, type of indicator (entrapped versus covalently linked) and method of delivery (oral or i.v.). The liver showed the highest uptake of particles in mice, and the lung showed the highest uptake in rats. Minimal amounts of particles were detected in both the heart and brain of rats and mice. In rats, the concentration of particles approached 0% dose/g or decreased significantly over 24 h after administration of a single dose of particles. Higher concentrations of smaller particles were evident in the liver, kidney and spleen. Orally delivered drugs showed little to no uptake within the 24 h analysis when compared with i.v. delivered NPs. Differences in particle concentrations between rats and mice were also observed as expected when expressed as % dose/g organ. Particles with covalently linked indicators showed lower concentrations in tissues than particles with physically entrapped indicators. Further research on oral delivery of PLGA NPs as well as distribution beyond 24 h is needed to fully understand particle behavior in vivo for successful application of NPs in drug delivery.

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Drug metabolism reviews

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