The West Nile virus (WNC) first appeared in North America in 1999. The North American lineages of WNV were characterized by the presence of neuroinvasive and neurovirulent strains causing disease and death in humans, birds and horses. The 2012 WNV season in the United States saw a massive spike in the number of neuroinvasive cases and deaths similar to what was seen in the 2002-2003 season, according to the West Nile virus disease cases and deaths reported to the CDC by year and clinical presentation, 1999-2012, by ArboNET (Arboviral Diseases Branch, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). In addition, the establishment and recent spread of lineage II WNV virus strains into Western Europe and the presence of neurovirulent and neuroinvasive strains among them is a cause of major concern. This review discusses the advances in the development of vaccines and biologicals to combat human and veterinary West Nile disease. © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Iyer, A., & Kousoulas, K. (2013). A review of vaccine approaches for West Nile virus. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 10 (9), 4200-4223. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10094200