© 2019 National Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved. Single-cell RNA sequencing of cells from cultured human blastocysts has enabled us to define the transcriptomic landscape of placental trophoblast (TB) that surrounds the epiblast and associated embryonic tissues during the enigmatic day 8 (D8) to D12 peri-implantation period before the villous placenta forms. We analyzed the transcriptomes of 3 early placental cell types, cytoTB (CTB), syncytioTB (STB), and migratoryTB (MTB), picked manually from cultured embryos dissociated with trypsin and were able to follow sublineages that emerged from proliferating CTB at the periphery of the conceptus. A unique form of CTB with some features of STB was detectable at D8, while mature STB was at its zenith at D10. A form of MTB with a mixed MTB/CTB phenotype arose around D10. By D12, STB generation was in decline, CTB had entered a new phase of proliferation, and mature MTB cells had begun to move from the main body of the conceptus. Notably, the MTB transcriptome at D12 indicated enrichment of transcripts associated with IFN signaling, migration, and invasion and up-regulation of HLA-C, HLA-E, and HLA-G. The STB, which is distinct from the STB of later villous STB, had a phenotype consistent with intense protein export and placental hormone production, as well as migration and invasion. The studies show that TB associated with human embryos is in rapid developmental flux during peri-implantation period when it must invade, signal robustly to the mother to ensure that the pregnancy continues, and make first contact with the maternal immune system.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
West, R., Ming, H., Logsdon, D., Sun, J., Rajput, S., Kile, R., Schoolcraft, W., Michael Roberts, R., Krisher, R., Jiang, Z., & Yuan, Y. (2019). Dynamics of trophoblast differentiation in peri-implantation–stage human embryos. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116 (45), 22635-22644. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1911362116