Effect of Dietary Fiber or Fat in Low-Crude Protein, Crystalline Amino Acid-Supplemented Diets for Finishing Pigs

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Three experiments were conducted to determine the effect of reducing NE, by adding dietary fiber in Exp. 1 and 2 and decreasing dietary fat in Exp. 3, of low-CP, crystaline amirio acid (CAA)supplemented diets for finishing pigs on growth performance and carcass characteristics. In Exp. 1 and 2, 64 barrows (Exp. 1) or gilts (Exp. 2) were allotted to four treatments with four replicates of four pigs each. Average initial and final BW were 74 and 117 kg in Exp. 1 and 74 and 102 kg in Exp. 2. The following diets were fed in Exp. 1: 1) corn-soybean meal (CSBM); 2) low-CP (-3.5%), supplemented with CAA; 3) CAA + rice hulls (CAA+RH; NE equal to Diet 1); and 4) CAA+RH+OIL (NE equal to Diet 2). Experiment 2 was similar to Exp. 1, except RH were replaced with wheat middlings (WM), oil was replaced with dry fat, and the CP was decreased by 3.1% in the lowCP diets. In both experiments, serum urea-N (SUN, corrected for initial SUN by covariance analysis) was higher (P < .10) for pigs fed C-SBM than for pigs fed any other diet. In Exp. 1, barrows fed CAA+RH had lower hot carcass weight, percentage muscle, fat-free lean (FFLEAN), lean gain per day, retained energy (RE) in FFLEAN, and lean:fat ratio than barrows fed C-SBM, along with less FFLEAN than barrows fed CAA+RH+OIL. Barrows fed CAA+RH had smaller longissimus muscle areas than barrows fed any other diet, and barrows fed C-SBM had higher dressing percentage and lower percentage total fat than barrows fed any other diet. Barrows fed C-SBM had higher lean:fat ratio and lower total fat than barrows fed CAA. In Exp. 2, gilts fed CAA+WM+FAT had heavier heart weights than gilts fed C-SBM or CAA (P < .10). In Exp. 3, 702 gilts were allotted to six treatments with nine replicates of 13 gilts each. Average initial and final BW were 70 and 110 kg. Gilts were fed two levels of CP (15.5 or 11.7% plus CAA added to meet an ideal amino acid ratio) and three levels of NE (2,650, 2,617, or 2,584 kcal/kg), resulting in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Gilts fed 15.5% CP had higher gain:feed ratio than gilts fed 11.7% CP (P < .01). Longissimus depth was greater for gilts fed 15.5% CP than for gilts fed 11.7% CP and was decreased as NE decreased only in gilts fed 11.7% CP (CP effect, P < .09; NE linear effect, P < .04; CP × NE effect, P < .01). Gilts fed the diet with 2,617 kcal NE had lighter carcasses and less total fat, fat gain per day, RE, and RE as fat regardless of protein level than gilts fed 2,650 or 2,584 kcal NE/kg (NE quadratic, P < .09). Loin color score increased as NE decreased (linear, P < .06), but longissimus fat depth was increased by the lowest level of NE (NE quadratic effect, P < .09). Overall, the reduction of NE in low-CP, CAA-supplemented diets did not affect growth performance and was not an effective means of reducing fat in finishing pigs.

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Journal of Animal Science

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