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Four pigeons were initially trained under a multiple variable‐interval 1‐min variable‐interval 1‐min schedule of food reinforcement. For two of the pigeons, a signal was then presented whenever the reinforcer was available in one component; this resulted in positive contrast. For the other two pigeons, the reinforcer was presented independently of responding on a variable‐time schedule in one component; this resulted in negative induction. After 30 to 50 sessions, however, a similar degree of differential responding occurred under both multiple schedules, i.e., high rates in the variable‐interval component and low rates in the other component. Reinforcement frequency remained about the same in each of the schedule components. The stable performances then served as baselines for studying drug effects. In the high‐rate component of both multiple schedules, small doses of d‐amphetamine increased responding, whereas larger doses decreased responding. In the low‐rate component of both multiple schedules, there was no rate‐increasing effect at any dose of d‐amphetamine; such an effect was found, however, with phenobarbital at a dose that decreased responding in the high‐rate component. The drug effects thus depended on the interaction of pharmacologic variables (specific drug and dose) with behavioral variables (schedule components). 1974 Society for the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

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Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior

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