Influence of pH and temperature on kinetics of ceftiofur degradation in aqueous solutions

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of ceftiofur (1 mgmL-1) in aqueous solutions at various pH (1, 3, 5, 7.4 and 10) and temperature (0, 8, 25, 37 and 60°C) conditions. The ionic strength of all these solutions was maintained at 0.5 M. Ceftiofur solutions at pH 5 and 7.4 and in distilled water (pH = 6.8) were tested at all the above temperatures. All other solutions were tested at 60°C. Over a period of 84 h, the stability was evaluated by quantifying ceftiofur and its degradation product, desfuroylceftiofur, in the incubation solutions. HPLC was used to analyse these compounds. At 60°C, the rate of degradation was significantly higher at pH 7.4 compared with pH 1, 3, 5 and distilled water. At both 60°C and 25°C, degradation in pH 10 buffer was rapid, with no detectable ceftiofur levels present at the end of 10 min incubation. Degradation rate constants of ceftiofur were 0.79 ± 0.21, 0.61 ± 0.03, 0.44 ± 0.05, 1.27 ± 0.04 and 0.39 ± 0.01 day-1 at pH 1, 3, 5, 7.4 and in distilled water, respectively. Formation of desfuroylceftiofur was the highest (65%) at pH 10. The rate of degradation increased in all aqueous solutions with an increase in the incubation temperature. At pH 7.4 the degradation rate constants were 0.06 ± 0.01, 0.06 ± 0.01, 0.65 ± 0.17, and 1.27 ± 0.05 day-1 at 0, 8, 25, 37 and 67°C, respectively. The energy of activation for ceftiofur degradation was 25, 42 and 28 kcal mol-1 at pH 5, 7.4 and in distilled water, respectively. Desfurylceftiofur formation was the greatest at alkaline pH compared with acidic pH. Ceftiofur degradation accelerated the most at pH 7.4 and was most rapid at pH 10. The results of this study are consistent with rapid clearance of ceftiofur at physiological pH.

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Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology

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