Ceftiofur distribution in plasma and joint fluid following regional limb injection in cattle

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The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of regional intravenous (i.v.) injection of ceftiofur in delivery of this drug to joint fluid and plasma in a limb distal to a tourniquet in five, healthy, adult, mixed breed beef cattle. A tourniquet was positioned in the mid-metacarpal region, and 500 mg of ceftiofur was administered through a catheter in the dorsal common digital vein (DCDV). Plasma samples were collected from the catheter at 15, 30 and 45 min postinjection, and from the abaxial proper palmar vein (APPV) at 15 min postinjection. Synovial fluid was collected from the metacarpal phalangeal joint at 45 min postinjection. Ceftiofur concentrations were estimated in plasma and synovial fluid using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a microbiological assay utilizing Pasteurella haemolytica as the test organism. Both assays indicated highest plasma concentrations of ceftiofur at 15 min, with the concentrations declining with time. Concentrations of ceftiofur in plasma obtained from the DCDV were not significantly different from APPV levels, indicating rapid distribution of ceftiofur within the limb. Microbiological assay always demonstrated higher concentrations of ceftiofur compared with HPLC assay, because the former probably also detected the active metabolites of ceftiofur as well as the parent compound. At 45 min, ceftiofur concentrations determined by HPLC were 251 ± 97 and 15 ± 5 μg/mL in plasma and synovial fluid, respectively. Regional intravenous injection appears to be a feasible technique to produce rapid distribution of ceftiofur within the limb well above therapeutic concentrations.

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Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics

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