Anthelmintic resistance on goat farms in Georgia: Efficacy of anthelmintics against gastrointestinal nematodes in two selected goat herds

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Gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) parasitism is a major constraint to production of goats in the southeastern United States. The conventional method of control used by producers in this region is frequent use of anthelmintics during the warm season. Overuse of anthelmintics has led to an increase in the incidence of anthelmintic resistance in many parts of the world, but data on prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in GIN of goats in the southeastern United States are very limited. To address this issue, anthelmintic efficacy was determined in goat herds at the Fort Valley State University, Agricultural Research Station (FVSU-ARS) and the University of Georgia, College of Veterinary Medicine (UGA-CVM) using fecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests and DrenchRite® larval development assays (LDA). At FVSU-ARS, 2-year-old Spanish goat does were randomly allocated to one of nine different treatment groups (n = 10): albendazole (ABZ; 20mg/kg body weight (BW)), fenbendazole (FBZ; 20mg/kg BW), ivermectin (IVM; 0.4mg/kg BW), doramectin (DRM; 0.4mg/kg BW), moxidectin (MOX; 0.4mg/kg BW), levamisole (LEV; 12mg/kg BW), morantel tartrate (MOR; 10mg/kg BW), a combination of IVM (0.4mg/kg BW) and ABZ (20mg/kg BW), and untreated controls. At UGA-CVM, goats were randomly allocated to one of five different treatment groups (n = 8): ABZ (20mg/kg BW), IVM (0.4mg/kg BW), MOX (0.4mg/kg BW), LEV (12mg/kg BW), and untreated controls. All drugs in both experiments were administered orally. Anthelmintic efficacy was calculated by comparing 14-day post-treatment FEC of treated and control animals, and percent reductions were interpreted using the World Association for the Advancement of Veterinary Parasitology guidelines for resistance. For the LDA, nematode eggs were isolated from pooled fecal samples of untreated control goats in each herd and used to perform DrenchRite® assays. In the FVSU-ARS herd, MOX, LEV, the combination of IVM and ABZ, IVM, DRM, ABZ, MOR, and FBZ reduced FEC by 100, 91, 88, 78, 76, 62, 48, and 10%, respectively. In the UGA-CVM herd, MOX, LEV, ABZ and IVM, reduced FEC by 100, 94, 87, and 0%, respectively. In both herds moxidectin was the only drug tested that was fully effective. Results of the LDA were in agreement with results of the FECR tests for both herds. These data demonstrate the presence of GINs resistant to all three major anthelmintic classes in both goat herds. © 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

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Veterinary Parasitology

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